American Studies Professor ousted from Cal State for Modifications to a Loyalty Oath
Wendy Gonaver, an American Studies Professor at Cal State University was dismissed for altering the wording of a required "loyalty oath." The oath requires the signer to swear to "defend" the U.S. and California constitutions "against all enemies, foreign and domestic." Gonaver added "non-violently" and offered to attach a statement explaining her Quaker affiliation and pacifist commitment.
The loyalty oath was added to the state Constitution by voters in 1952 to root out communists in public jobs.